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Item ID: tp0028   Source ID: 2

Description: Product Specifications: 8.5 x 11 inches or 5.5x 8.5 inches; 50 tear sheets, two-sided information (full color front side, one-color back side), printed on white stock, sturdy cardboard back, detailed medical illustrations in color and continuous tone, space available for overprinting of contact information or product may be customized with new artwork or text... More

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Product Specifications: 8.5 x 11 inches or 5.5x 8.5 inches; 50 tear sheets, two-sided information (full color front side, one-color back side), printed on white stock, sturdy cardboard back, detailed medical illustrations in color and continuous tone, space available for overprinting of contact information or product may be customized with new artwork or text (additional charge may apply).

This tear sheet pad contains the following information:

Insomnia (Sleeplessness)

Definition

Insomnia refers to inadequate or poor-quality sleep. Insomnia may be due to difficulty falling asleep, or problems with middle-of-the-night or very early morning awakening. Insomnia lasting from a single night to a few weeks is referred to as transient. If episodes of transient insomnia occur from time to time, the insomnia is said to be intermittent. Insomnia is considered to be chronic if it occurs on most nights and lasts a month or more. Causes

There are many causes of insomnia. Transient and intermittent insomnia generally occur in people who are temporarily experiencing one or more of the following:

* A life crisis or stress
* Change in the surrounding environment
* Environmental noise
* Extreme temperatures
* Hormonal shifts during the menstrual cycle, during pregnancy, or during perimenopause or menopause
* Side effects of medicine
      o Nonprescription: diet aids, decongestants, cold and cough remedies
      o Prescription: steroids, theophylline, phenytoin, levodopa
* Sleep/wake schedule problems such as those due to jet lag

Chronic insomnia often results from the following conditions:

* Alzheimer's disease
* Anxiety
* Arthritis
* Asthma
* Depression
* Fibromyalgia
* Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or ulcer
* Heart disease
* Hyperthyroidism
* Kidney disease
* Liver failure
* Mania
* Narcolepsy
* Parkinson's disease
* Restless legs syndrome
* Sleep apnea

Chronic insomnia may also be due to behavioral factors, including:

* Chronic stress
* Disrupted sleep/wake cycles from shift work or other nighttime activities
* Misuse of caffeine, alcohol, or other substances

In addition, the following behaviors have been shown to perpetuate insomnia in some people:

* Excessive napping in the afternoon or evening
* Expecting to have difficulty sleeping and worrying about it
* Smoking cigarettes before bedtime

Risk Factors

A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or condition.

* A history of mental disorders such as anxiety and depression
* Age: 50 or older
* Alcohol, drugs, or certain medicines
* Chronic pain
* Obesity
* Sex: Female (especially during and after menopause)
* Shift work
* Stress
* Use of multiple medications

Symptoms

Symptoms include:

* Difficulty falling asleep
* Feeling un-refreshed after sleep
* Waking up frequently during the night with difficulty returning to sleep
* Waking up too early

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical exam. You will also be asked about your job, eating habits, schedules, and travel patterns. Treatment Treat Underlying Medical Conditions

A number of physical and mental disorders can disrupt sleep. Diagnosis and treatment of underlying illness may help alleviate insomnia. Identify and Modify Behaviors that Worsen Insomnia

Reduce or avoid caffeine, alcohol, and drug use. Go to bed and wake up at the same time each day. If you must take naps, keep them short. Do not smoke close to bedtime. Sleeping Pills

Sleeping pills are available by prescription or over-the-counter. Some doctors advise against the long-term use of sleeping pills for treating chronic insomnia because they may cause dependence. Herbal Therapies and Supplements

Some people use the herb valerian to reduce insomnia. Others take supplements of melatonin. In the United States, herbal products and dietary supplements do not undergo the same testing as drugs. Their long-term impact, side effects, and possible interactions with other drugs or medical conditions are often unknown. Relaxation Therapy

Techniques such as deep breathing, thought stopping, and progressive relaxation may reduce or eliminate anxiety and body tension. This stops the mind from 'racing' and allows the muscles to relax so that restful sleep can occur. Sleep Restriction

A sleep restriction program at first allows only a few hours of sleep during the night. Gradually the time is increased until a more normal night's sleep is achieved. Reconditioning

Reconditioning helps people to associate the bed and bedtime with sleep. This means not using the bed for activities other than sleep and sex. As part of the reconditioning process, the person is usually advised to go to bed only when sleepy. Prevention

To reduce your chance of having insomnia:

* Avoid 'clock watching' after going to bed.
* Avoid drinking fluids before bedtime.
* Avoid eating too fast, too much, or too close to bedtime.
* Don't smoke.
* Exercise regularly, but not within less than three hours of bedtime.
* Get more sunlight or ultraviolet light during the day.
* If you cannot avoid naps, keep them short.
* Keep bedtimes and wake-times consistent throughout the week.
* Make sure that the bedroom is not too cold or too hot.
* Make sure your mattress is supportive and the bedding is comfortable.
* Minimize intake of caffeinated food and drinks (coffee, tea, chocolate, cola drinks) after lunch.
* Schedule relaxing bedtime routines. Listen to quiet music or soak in warm water.
* Use a humidifier or dehumidifier as needed.
* Use earplugs or listen to relaxing music or white noise. This helps reduce the disturbing effects of noise.
* Use shades, lined drapes, or wear an eye mask to reduce sleep disruption.
* Use the bedroom only for sleep and sex.

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